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Mouse Autotaxin ELISA

Product Code: 32770
Cat. No.
Product
Assay range
Size
Price*
32770
Mouse Autotaxin ELISA
0.625-40 ng/ml
96T/Kit
400.00 US$

 

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INTRODUCTION

 

Autotaxin, also known as ENPP-2, is a secreted glycoprotein which belongs to the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (NPP) family. Generally, NPPs can hydrolyze phosphates from nucleotides. Autotaxin exhibits the unique lysophospholipase D activity. The mature protein includes two somatomedin-B-like (SMB) cysteine knot domains, a catalytic domain, and an inactive C-terminal nuclease-like domain with an ef-hand-like motif that is important in cell motility, and a region involved in autotaxin secretion. There are three isoforms identified in mouse and human. Most circulating autotaxin is the β form which contains 863 amino acid. Autotaxin contributes to the predominant extracellular source of the phospholipid LPA (lysophosphatidic acid) from LPC (lysophosphatidylcholine). Autotaxin can also produce minor amounts of sphingosine 1-phosphate and cyclic phosphatidic acid which can antagonize many of the tumorigenic properties of LPA. Autotaxin stimulates tumor cell motility and enhances invasion and metastasis. It’s upregulated in melanoma, glioblastoma, breast and lung carcinoma, follicular lymphoma and other cancers. Autotaxin production by adipocytes enhances pre-adipocyte proliferation and may be
elevated in obesity. Autotaxin is present in blood, urine, saliva, seminal and cerebrospinal fluids. In addition, plasma autotaxin is cleared by the liver which is elevated in liver disease. Normal serum or plasma autotaxin concentration is reported to be slightly higher in females than in males and highest in pregnant females.

 

TYPICAL STANDARD CURVE

 

The following standard curve is provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of sample assay.

 

Human Autotaxin standard curve (4-parameter)

 

ASSAY CHARACTERISTICS

 

A. Sensitivity:

The lowest level of CRP that can be detected by this assay is 0.312 ng/ml.

 

B. Precision

Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay) C.V <10%.

Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays) C.V <10%.

 

C. Spiking

Serum samples were assayed by adding 90 µl of the sample and 10 µl of spike stock solution calculated to yield the intended 0, 5, 10 ng/ml spike concentration. The recovery of human autotaxin spiked to different levels falls in 80-120%.

 

D. Validations

8 weeks-old C57BL mice fed with 8-week standard chow or high-fat diet. The serum levels of autotaxin were determined.

 

REFERENCE

1. Cimpean, Anisoara, et al. "Substrate-specifying determinants of the nucleotide pyrophosphatases/phosphodiesterases NPP1 and NPP2." Biochemical Journal 381.1 (2004): 71-77.
2. Okudaira, Shinichi, Hiroshi Yukiura, and Junken Aoki. "Biological roles of lysophosphatidic acid signaling through its production by autotaxin." Biochimie 92.6 (2010): 698-706.
3. Umezu-Goto, Makiko, et al. "Autotaxin has lysophospholipase D activity leading to tumor cell growth and motility by lysophosphatidic acid production." J cell biol 158.2 (2002): 227-233.
4. Hausmann, Jens, et al. "Structural basis of substrate discrimination and integrin  
binding by autotaxin." Nature Structural and Molecular Biology 18.2 (2011): 198.
5. Dennis, Jameel, et al. "Phosphodiesterase-Iα/autotaxin's MORFO domain regulates  oligodendroglial process network formation and focal adhesion    organization." Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 37.2 (2008): 412-424.
6.van Meeteren, Laurens A., and Wouter H. Moolenaar. "Regulation and biological activities of the autotaxin–LPA axis." Progress in lipid research 46.2 (2007): 145-160.
7. Giganti, Adeline, et al. "Murine and Human Autotaxin α, β, and γ Isoforms GENE ORGANIZATION, TISSUE DISTRIBUTION, AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION." Journal of Biological Chemistry 283.12 (2008): 7776-7789.
8. Gijsbers, Rik, et al. "The hydrolysis of lysophospholipids and nucleotides by autotaxin (NPP2) involves a single catalytic site." FEBS letters 538.1-3 (2003): 60-64.
9. Tsuda, Satomi, et al. "Cyclic phosphatidic acid is produced by autotaxin in blood." Journal of Biological Chemistry 281.36 (2006): 26081-26088.
10. Ferry, Gilles, et al. "Functional invalidation of the autotaxin gene by a single amino acid mutation in mouse is lethal." FEBS letters 581.18 (2007): 3572-3578.
11. Van Meeteren, Laurens A., et al. "Autotaxin, a secreted lysophospholipase D, is essential for blood vessel formation during development." Molecular and cellular biology 26.13 (2006): 5015-5022.
12. Tania, Mousumi, et al. "Autotaxin: a protein with two faces." Biochemical and biophysical research communications 401.4 (2010): 493-497.
13. Ferry, Gilles, et al. "Autotaxin is released from adipocytes, catalyzes lysophosphatidic acid synthesis, and activates preadipocyte proliferation up-regulated expression with adipocyte differentiation and obesity." Journal of Biological Chemistry 278.20 (2003): 18162-18169.
14. Nakamura, Kazuhiro, et al. "Validation of an autotaxin enzyme immunoassay in human serum samples and its application to hypoalbuminemia differentiation." Clinica chimica acta 388.1-2 (2008): 51-58.

 

 

 

 

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